Order a copy of the book "Ontology: A Practical Guide" (contents)
for $25+tax/shipping (international customers should
email me first to get shipping costs)
This book reports on a decade of work developing SUMO and its
associated tools, models and domain ontologies. Written for a wide
audience, it should be accessible to anyone with a general computer
science background. It includes introductions to topics such as formal
theorem proving and the properties of different formal knowledge
representation languages.
The book is suitable as a selfstudy guide for the professional, student
or researcher. It also includes a number of exercises with selected
answers, making it appropriate as a textbook for a senior year or
graduate level course in AI knowledge representation.
Table of Contents
List of Authors  ix 
Forward  xi 
Author's Preface  xv 
Chapter 1: Introduction  1 
Motivation  3 
Responding to the Critics  11 
The Symbol Grounding Problem  20 
Contents of the Book  28 
Chapter 2: Knowledge Representation  31 
Overview  33 
Informal Languages  35 
Frames  38 
Description Logic  41 
Propositional and Predicate Logic  47 
FirstOrder Logic  53 
HigherOrder Logics  55 
FirstOrder Logic in SUOKIF  56 
SUOKIF Details  58 
Conversion to FirstOrder Logic  61 
Exercises  68 
Chapter 3: Ontologies (in the Broadest Sense)  69 
Introduction  71 
WordNet (and Why it's not an Ontology)  71 
Digression: Ontology Development Pitfalls  78 
Chapter 4: Suggested Upper Merged Ontology  83 
Overview  86 
Validation  89 
Principles of Construction  92 
Digression  Open Research  93 
SUMO History  94 
SUMO Overview  101 
SUMO's Eleven Modules  105 
Lower Level Ontologies  109 
Ontological Issues  111 
Ontology Code Management  118 
SUMO Details and Examples  120 
Semiotics Content  147 
Exercises  154 
Chapter 5: SUMO and the WordNet Mappings  157 
Overview  159 
Interpreting Language  164 
Global WordNet  166 
The Interlingual Index  166 
Arabic and Filipino Wordnets  168 
Chapter 6: Knowledge Engineering Tools  171 
Introduction  173 
Language Generation  175 
Browsing and Display  179 
Analysis and Debugging  182 
Inference  184 
HigherOrder Logic  192 
Mapping, Merging and Translation  194 
Working with Sigma and SUMO  195 
Example Application  197 
Browsing and Editing  201 
Sigma Tutorial  202 
Exercises  214 
Chapter 7: Using SUMO for Inference  215 
Overview  217 
Inference  218 
Example Inference  220 
Proof Presentation  222 
Resolution Theorem Proving Example  223 
Normalization Algorithm  230 
Refutation Algorithm  232 
Chapter 8: Controlled English to Logic Translation  235 
Introduction  237 
Simple Parsing and Interpretation  239 
Issues in Translation  241 
CELT Components  248 
Chapter 9: An Application: Extending SUMO with Wikipedia  249 
Introduction  251 
Related Work  251 
General Comparison of the Knowledge Sources  253 
Integration of Entities  255 
Integrating Factual Knowledge  262 
Semantics of Terms in Ontologies  266 
Conclusion  267 
Summary and Conclusions  269 
Answers to the Exercises  271 
Acknowledgments  275 
References  279 
Index  297 


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Speaking Schedule:
2012
Oct 29, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Computer Science Department,
2011:
Nov 15  CMU Silicon Valley,
Moffett Field, CA
Nov 9  Sentiment Analysis symposium, San Francisco
Oct 26  U. Miami
Aug 22, ACM Silicon Valley, @LinkedIn, Mountain View, CA
July 13, Semantic Web Meetup @Microsoft Research, Mountain View, CA
June 16, SRI, Menlo Park, CA
